Versailles - 78000

Piano and osteopathy

Piano playing, while profoundly rewarding, can place significant demands on the musician's body. Repetitive movements, prolonged postures and the intensity of practice sessions can result in a variety of musculoskeletal disorders. To meet these challenges, osteopathy offers a valuable complementary therapeutic approach, both curative and preventive.

The pianist's posture

A pianist's posture is essential to ensure efficient performance and prevent injuries and pain associated with poor ergonomics. Good posture not only enables fluid, relaxed playing, but also helps maintain long-term physical health. Adopting and maintaining correct posture at the piano requires vigilance and practice, but it contributes greatly to a more comfortable and healthier performance.

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Seated position

Use a height-adjustable piano chair or bench to suit your body type. Your feet should be flat on the floor or on a footrest, with your knees slightly lower than your hips. Sit far enough away from the piano so that your elbows are slightly forward of your body, but not so far that you lean forward.

Upper body position

Keep your back straight, with a slight natural curve in the lower back. Avoid slouching or leaning forward. Keep your shoulders relaxed and avoid lifting or tensing them. Keep your head in a neutral position, without tilting it forwards or backwards. Your gaze should naturally rest on the sheet music or keys, without straining your neck.

Position of arms and hands

Elbows should be slightly bent at an angle of about 90 degrees. They should be neither too close to the body nor too far apart. Wrists should be in line with forearms, neither too high nor too low, to avoid tension. Fingers should be slightly curved, as if holding a ball. Avoid playing with flat or over-stretched fingers.

Leg and foot position

Feet should be flat on the ground, distributing weight evenly. Use a footrest if necessary to maintain this position. Knees should be slightly bent, not pressed against the piano keyboard.


If you feel pain or discomfort, stop playing and evaluate your posture. Sometimes small adjustments can make a big difference.

Biomechanics of the pianist's movements

Pianists make delicate movements, requiring precise coordination between different parts of the body. Let's take a look at the main movements and the biomechanics involved:

Upper limb movements

Fingers: Basic finger movements involve flexion (closing) and extension (opening) of the interphalangeal joints. Precise finger coordination ensures smooth passage between keys, minimizing errors and tensions.

Wrists: The wrists must be able to rotate slightly to allow lateral movements on the keyboard. Flexion (lowering) and extension (raising) of the wrists are necessary for dynamic, expressive playing.

Forearms: The forearms pronate (rotate inward) and supinate (rotate outward) to adapt the hands to the different intervals between keys. They must also rise and fall smoothly to accompany hand and finger movements.

Elbows: The elbows flex and extend slightly to adjust the position of the hands on the keyboard. They should move away from or towards the body to allow greater amplitude of movement.

Shoulders: Shoulders should be able to pivot slightly to accompany arm and hand movements. Vertical shoulder movements are necessary to adjust arm height and avoid tension.

Role of the trunk

A straight, stable back provides a solid base for all arm and hand movements. A certain flexibility of the trunk is necessary to allow fluid and dynamic movements, especially when performing fast or wide passages.

Coordination and synchronization

Hand coordination: Both hands must be well coordinated, especially in passages requiring independent or simultaneous movements across the keyboard.

Hand-foot coordination: When pedaling is required, effective coordination between hands and feet is crucial to synchronize pedal changes with hand movements.

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Close attention to these biomechanical aspects enables pianists to play more efficiently and healthily, reducing the risk of injury while improving their overall performance.

The main pathologies affecting pianists

Due to repetitive movements and prolonged postures, pianists are susceptible to a variety of musculoskeletal pathologies. These conditions can affect the fingers, wrists, arms, shoulders and even the back.


Tendonitis is a common problem for pianists, due to the repetitive movements and prolonged postures associated with playing the piano. Tendonitis occurs when a tendon, the fibrous structure that connects muscle to bone, becomes inflamed or irritated. In pianists, tendonitis can affect several areas, including the wrists, forearms and fingers. These include finger flexor tendinitis, De Quervain's, tennis elbow and golf elbow. 

Typical symptoms of tendonitis in pianists include localized pain, tenderness to touch, swelling and sometimes reduced strength or mobility in the affected area. Pianists may experience pain while playing or even at rest, depending on the severity of the tendonitis.

It is important for pianists to consult a healthcare professional as soon as symptoms of tendonitis appear, in order to receive an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment recommendations. Ignoring symptoms or continuing to play despite pain can worsen the condition and lead to long-term complications. A proactive approach to tendonitis management can help pianists maintain a healthy and sustainable musical practice.

Carpal tunnel syndrome

piano pianist osteopath versailles osteopathy

Carpal tunnel syndrome is a frequent problem for pianists. It results from compression of the median nerve at the wrist, due to thickening or inflammation of the flexor muscle retinaculum. Symptoms include tingling, numbness, electric shocks and reduced hand strength, particularly in movements involving the thumb and index finger.

For pianists, maintaining the playing position for long periods of time aggravates these symptoms, adversely affecting performance and quality of life.

Management of this syndrome requires a multidisciplinary approach, integrating ergonomic adjustments to playing technique, specific strengthening and stretching exercises, as well as therapeutic interventions such as physiotherapy, massage, and even surgical evaluation in the most severe cases. Regular medical check-ups and consultations with specialists are essential to prevent the onset of this pathology and ensure a long-lasting, pain-free musical practice.


Bursitis is characterized by inflammation of one or more bursae, small fluid-filled sacs located near the joints that act as cushions to reduce friction between bones, tendons and muscles. 

In pianists, bursitis can develop particularly in the joints of the fingers, wrists or even elbows due to the repeated stress exerted on these areas during prolonged practice. Common symptoms of bursitis in pianists can include local pain, swelling, sensitivity to touch and reduced mobility in the affected joints.

Management of bursitis often involves measures such as rest, ice application, reduction of activities that exacerbate symptoms, and anti-inflammatory drugs to relieve pain and inflammation. Physical therapy sessions may also be recommended to strengthen surrounding muscles and improve joint mobility. If symptoms persist despite these measures, a medical consultation may be necessary to consider other treatment options, such as corticosteroid injections or, in more severe cases, surgery to drain or remove the inflamed bursa.

Back pain

 piano pianist osteopath versailles osteopathy

Pianists are often prone to low back and neck pain, generally the result of prolonged and incorrect postures adopted during practice.

Lumbago, located in the lower back, often occurs as a result of muscular fatigue or excessive tension. Similarly, cervicalgia, characterized by pain in the neck, often results from the prolonged forward position of the head required to concentrate on the score or piano keys. These pains can result from muscular tension, postural imbalances and repetitive movements.

To treat back pain in pianists, a multi-dimensional approach is needed, including exercises focused on strengthening and improving mobility, methods for correcting posture, and frequent breaks to avoid muscle fatigue.

Osteopathy and pianists

piano pianist osteopath versailles osteopathy

Osteopathy is a valuable therapeutic resource for pianists, offering both preventive and curative solutions for musculoskeletal disorders arising from their intensive practice.

By working to improve posture, it reduces the risk of back, neck and upper limb pain, often associated with poor ergonomics. By identifying and correcting muscular imbalances, osteopaths can prevent injuries resulting from overuse or poor playing habits. Osteopathic manipulation targets muscle tension and joint problems, relieving pain and improving mobility. This approach promotes greater fluidity in piano movements.

In addition, by teaching stress management and breathing techniques, osteopathy helps improve concentration and playing quality, enabling pianists to express themselves with ease and without pain.

In conclusion

In conclusion, osteopathy proves to be a valuable ally for pianists, offering effective solutions to prevent and treat the musculoskeletal disorders common in this demanding discipline. By integrating regular osteopathic sessions, pianists can not only relieve pain and tension, but also improve their posture and technique, thus promoting a healthier and more sustainable practice. Osteopathy's holistic approach, focusing on balance and overall body mobility, maximizes musical performance while minimizing the risk of injury. For any serious pianist, osteopathy represents an essential dimension of physical maintenance and prevention, contributing to a long and fulfilling career.

Athina De Vogel
Osteopath D.O
2 rue Alexis de Tocqueville
78000 Versailles

Athina De Vogel osteopath versailles

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